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超聲波風速風向儀工作原理

2018-05-02

  超聲波風速風向儀是利用發送聲波脈沖,測量接收端的時間或頻率差別來計算風速和風向的測量傳感器或測量儀器。

  傳統的機械式風速風向儀存在轉動部件,容易產生磨損。機械結構可能會受到惡劣天氣的損害,沙塵和鹽霧也會對其造成腐蝕。同時,由于摩擦的存在,機械式風速風向儀還存在啟動風速,低于啟動值的風速將不能驅動螺旋槳或者風杯進行旋轉。因此對于低于啟動風速的微風,機械式風速儀將無法測量。為克服傳統風杯式風速風向儀的固有缺點,新型超聲波風速風向儀應運而生。

  超聲波風速風向儀沒有活動的機械部件,取而代之的是若干個超聲波傳感器。理論上可以測量的風速范圍下限為零,不存在啟動風速;風速上限可以根據傳感器間距進行調整。

  超聲測風是超聲波檢測技術在氣體介質中的一種應用,它是利用超聲波在空氣中傳播速度受空氣流動(風)的影響來測量風速的。聲音在空氣中的傳播速度,會和風向上的氣流速度疊加。若超聲波的傳播方向與風向相同,它的速度會加快;反之,若超聲波的傳播方向若與風向相反,它的速度會變慢。因此,在固定的檢測條件下,超聲波在空氣中傳播的速度可以和風速函數對應。通過計算即可得到精確的風速和風向。

  與常規的風杯或旋翼式風速儀相比,這種測量方法的最大特點在于整個測風系統沒有任何機械轉動部件,屬于無慣性測量,故能準確測出自然風中陣風脈動的高頻成分,結合現代計算機技術,可在更高層次上揭示自然風的特性,對于提高抗風減災能力和風資源的合理利用具有重大意義。

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